The overarching theme of SPDCs five year Gender Research Programme (GRP), funded by the Royal Norwegian Embassy Pakistan was women, work and poverty. This programme was designed to fill the gap in research on gender in Pakistan. Its objectives were:
1. To put gender on the map of policy making in the country by raising awareness of genderimplications of social and macroeconomic economic policies with a particular focus onwomens work and poverty 2. To develop quantitative and qualitative data, including gender disaggregated statistics and indicators that map changes in gender roles and access to equal rights and opportunities insocial and economic policies and programmes 3. To add to the technical research in Pakistan on the gender aspects of social andmacroeconomic policies 4. To factor in gendered perspectives in hardcore economic issues as well as social progress engine concepts of development in the research and policy analysis 5. To broadly disseminate the findings in a way to enhance awareness of the government,donors, academia and media about the gender issues identified through research and policyanalysis
In view of the inequalities that exist in access to education and health services between males and females in Pakistan, this study investigates income groups which benefited from government's subsidized education services during 1998-99 and 2004-05 and health services in 2004-05. Further, it also looks at how these benefits are distributed between males and females during the same period and the changes that occurred in the distribution of education expenditures between males and females in different income quintiles during that period. The methodology employed to assess gender differentials in public service provision is based on a 'benefit incidence analysis' that measures the distribution of in-kind transfers across households.
This report analyzes the changing structure of economy and employment during the period of trade liberalisation and estimates the effects of trade liberalisation and other relevant socio-economic characteristics on female participation in the labour force in Pakistan. Findings projecting the changing pattern of composition of GDP help in understanding the dynamics of male and female employment in Pakistan. It also indicates a limited effect of trade liberalisation on female participation in the labour force and that the growth in the production of agriculture and manufacturing sector is found to be significantly influencing women labor force participation in Pakistan. The findings of the research report would help all tiers of the government in building a comprehensive and a proper set of policies that ensure gender balance in employment opportunities as well as those which economically empower the female workforce.
It is a panel study based on survey of about 2000 households. Being a baseline study, it documents and analyzes the diversity in the characteristics of female headed households and the contextual factors that contribute to their formation. The study assesses the overall well-being of female headed households in terms of their living conditions, employment and income profile in comparison with male headed households. Examining the decision making processes within the female headed households, it is also indicative of a subtle yet, a definite improvement in the empowerment of females particularly within the female headed households.
This study examines the targeting efficiency (poor vs non-poor), consumption priorities and the impact of transfers on the welfare of individuals within the households receiving Zakat. Unfortunately, the social safety nets initiated by respective governments of developing countries continue to largely ignore gender issues both at the designing and implementation stages. This neglect is largely attributed to the dearth of gender disaggregated impact assessments of social safety net policies and programs. The research undertaken would help narrow the existing gap. Relying on the findings of the survey of randomly selected Zakat Guzara Allowance (regular financial cash assistance) recipients, it examines the efficiency and efficacy of the institution of Zakat, which is the oldest and a well established cash and in-kind transfer program in Pakistan.
Being a pioneering study, it analyses the nature and intensity of the cost of violence against women incurred by the individual. To build a proper and fuller understanding of the issue, the research comprehensively covers its various forms and manifestations including its effects on society and the economic conditions that require serious efforts both in terms of designing policies and allocation of financial resources.
This study evaluates the gender differences in terms of patterns, determinants and the extent of participation in the rural non-farm sector in diverse economic and ecological settings using a primary household survey of about 1200 rural households in the four provinces of Pakistan. These households were randomly selected from different agro-climatic and cropping zones and were enumerated using a comprehensive set of living standard measurement modules. Non-farm sources of income are important for the rural poor because of the highly seasonal nature of agricultural employment, water shortage and droughts. Despite the importance of rural non-farm sector in terms of employment generation, income diversification and security, the sector is relatively under-researched mainly due to the non-availability of primary data. Moreover, gender dimension of non-farm employment and non-farm activities has not been investigated in the context of Pakistan. Findings of this research will facilitate policymakers to enhance the sector's role by diversifying job and income-earning opportunities, particularly for the landless, wage earners and women in rural areas. The information would also help to increase awareness regarding financial, cultural and other constraints for expanding non-farm sector, especially for women.
This research measures the level of overall well-being of displaced women in the case of Lyrai Expressway Karachi, by using the Impoverishment Risk and Reconstruction (IRR) Model. Based on qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry the study identifies parameters that need to be taken into account while planning and designing a development project. The study analyzes the impact of involuntary displacement on the well-being of affected population, especially women and assesses the gender differentiated impacts of involuntary displacement at household level. Unfortunately, development projects tend to neglect gender related issues at the planning and implementation stages. This research would help place gender perspectives of development induced displacement on the policy-making agenda and also add to empirical research in this area in Pakistan.
The research undertakes a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the socio-economic profile of domestic female workers and highlights the existing challenges/problems faced by these women and factors that determine their wages. It is based on a survey of 250 respondents in Karachi and Lahore.
In July 2010, Pakistan was adversely affected by the devastating flood, which damaged its physical infrastructure at a large scale and deprived a large number of people of their assets and livestock and destroyed their houses. The experience of developed and developing countries like Cambodia, South Africa, Caribbean and Australia indicate that floods and other natural disasters have complex socio-economic consequences on different strata of society. For instance, poor households are more vulnerable than rich household. Similarly female are likely to be more adversely affected compared their male counterpart. This study analyzes the gender differentiated socio-economic implication of flood on households in district Thatta.
This study undertakes a comparative analysis of overall well being of the female headed households (changes in socio-economic conditions of women at the household level, changes in the level of female empowerment, improvement/deterioration in their decision-making and intra household extent of discrimination between male and female child) with the help of indicators collected in the baseline study. In addition to a comparative analysis of some key variables, it also looks at the availability of social protection mechanisms for female headed households in Pakistan. It is based on a household survey of 1600 households in 13 districts of Pakistan (Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalpur, Faislabad, Lahore, Peshawar, Nowshera, Karachi, Khairpur, Quetta, Jehlum, Abbottabad, Mansehra, Haripur).
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